Very broadly: If the proportions (by molecular weight) of silica to alumina in a glaze in the range of 8-10, the glaze will probably be glossy and transparent. This (and the next bits) does not account for which flux is used; a high proportion of magnesium (for example) used as a flux will cause the glaze to be matte regardless. The proportions of silica to alumina can go as high as 18 to 1.
If the proportions are in the neighborhood of 5-8 to 1, this will probably be a satin or waxy glaze. Depending on the flux.
If the proportions of silica to alumina are 1-5 to 1, this will likely be a stony matte glaze.